Market Exchange


Without open markets and the ability to make exchanges, an economic system could not prosper and grow. In this section I will examine important aspects of the process of market exchange.

Although exchange represents of basic activity in markets, we need to break down the theory of exchange into component parts in order to understand it fully — also to begin to understand the critical role that money plays in exchanges.

You can consider everything that you do as an exchange. You eat breakfast in the morning in exchange for hunger. You get dressed in exchange for being naked — or wearing your pajamas all day long. Then, when you go to the store, you exchange something of value for something you value more.

Since most exchanges in the modern world consist of an exchange of money for goods, I have decided to put the details of the theory of economic exchange in the category of Money & Banking. You will see from the brief outline below that my description of the theory of economic exchange leads from voluntary exchange to the use of money.

Summary of Exchange

It has been said that all human activity consists of exchanges. We will study the theory of exchange in extensive detail throughout this website.

Market Pricing

Prices convey a significant amount of important information about markets. Limited models can prove useful in demonstrating theories about market pricing.


Markets emerge from the exchange of goods and services. Those exchanges determine the allocation of resources. Free markets comprise voluntary exchanges free from intervention. Free markets represent a natural condition that operates effectively and efficiently without intervention.

Market Systems

Markets operate as systems. They have connections from one element to another plus feedback mechanism that allow processes in one element to affect process in another, sometimes distant element.  

Complex Markets

The numerous connections and feedbacks in market systems make them extremely complex. The complexity can lead to frequent misunderstands of the cause and effect relationships in markets.

Money Basics

As you have seen from the introduction to exchange, money plays a vital role in the efficient operation of large markets. I will cover some of the basics of money in this section and go into more detail in the category devoted entirely to money.