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Logical Errors

In order to understand sound reasoning, sometimes it helps to look at logical errors. If we examine the errors in our thinking, we can usually find a way to correct them.

I am in the process of assembling a collection of examples of logical errors. If you have any suggestions of errors I can add to this collection, please contact me at the email address given at the bottom of the page.

In order to display many of the logical errors that occur in the writing and study of economics I have borrowed this layout, and the linked descriptions from Albrecht, Karl (Brain Power. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1980).

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Logical Errors Logical Dodges Logical Fallacies Faulty Premises Faulty Arguments Factual Errors Misleading Terms Cause and Effect Relevance Begging the Question Red Herring Personal Attack Trick Question False Analogy Absurdity Special Immunity Incorrect "Facts" Weak "Facts" The Big Lie Irrelevant Data Suggestion Epithets Euphemism Misleading Metaphor Word Magic Personification Either/Or Equivocation Double Standard Post Hoc, Ergo Procter Hoc False Cause False Dependence False Correlation Oversimplification Rationalization Unwarranted Generalization Misused Truism Stereotyping Misuse of Statistics Appeal to Authority Appeal to Consensus Mob Appeal Snob Appeal Appeal to Ignorance Appeal to Emotion Appeal to Ego

Adapted from Albrecht, Karl. Brain Power. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1980.

Deductive Reasoning